what about fever???
Do not fear a fever!!! The body’s ability to mount a fever is a sign of good vitality.
Factors which influence body temperature: (Excerpts from: https://nccmed.com/normal-body-temperature-ranges-in-children-and-adults/)
The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that is responsible for controlling body temperature. When the body temperature climbs over or falls below the 98.6°F (37°C) level, the hypothalamus is activated, allowing the temperature to be regulated. When the body becomes too cold, the hypothalamus sends signals to the body, causing it to shiver, which helps to warm the body. When the body becomes overheated, it sends signals to the brain to begin sweating, which allows heat to escape the body.
The majority of fevers are caused by infections. An illness causes a fever, which is the body’s natural way of responding to and battling the infection.
Researchers discovered that some medical disorders may have an impact on a person’s body temperature. People with an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), for example, tended to have lower temperatures, but people with cancer tended to have higher temperatures.
This table lists the typical body temperature ranges for adults and children, according to, the manufacturer of the thermometer used in the particular study (Obermeyer Z, Samra J K, Mullainathan S. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records BMJ 2017; 359 :j5468 doi:10.1136/bmj.j5468):
Type of temperature reading:
(0-2 years) (3-10 years) (11-65 years) (Over 65 years)
95.9–99.5°F (35.5–37.5°C) 95.9–99.5°F (35.5–37.5°C) 97.6–99.6°F (36.4–37.6°C) 96.4–98.5°F (35.8–36.9°C)
97.9–100.4°F (36.6–38°C) 97.9–100.4°F (36.6–38°C) 98.6–100.6°F (37.0–38.1°C) 97.1–99.2°F (36.2–37.3°C)
94.5–99.1°F (34.7–37.3°C) 96.6–98.0°F (35.9–36.7°C) 95.3–98.4°F (35.2–36.9°C) 96.0–97.4°F (35.6–36.3°C)
97.5–100.4°F (36.4–38°C) 97.0–100.0°F (36.1–37.8°C) 96.6–99.7°F (35.9–37.6°C) 96.4–99.5°F (35.8–37.5°C)
Infant and baby temperatures and newborns
Infants aged 0–2 years have a normal body temperature that ranges between 97.9 and 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit when measured rectally. When a baby is teething, his or her body temperature may rise a little.
When compared to their body weight, a baby has a bigger surface area on which to radiate heat, which raises their temperature. Their bodies are also more metabolically active, which results in an increase in heat production.
The bodies of babies do not regulate their temperature as well as the bodies of adults. When it is warm, they sweat less, which means that their bodies retain more heat. A fever might also make cooling down more difficult for those who are suffering from it.
The average body temperature of a newborn is 99.5°F. If a child under the age of three months has a rectal temperature of 100.4°F or above, seek emergency medical assistance immediately. A small temperature in a very young baby can indicate the presence of a dangerous infection.
Myths and facts about fever: (Excerpts from: https://www.seattlechildrens.org/conditions/a-z/fever-myths-versus-facts/)
MYTH. My child feels warm, so he/she has a fever.
FACT. Children can feel warm for many reasons. Examples are playing hard, crying, getting out of a warm bed or hot weather. They are "giving off heat". Their skin temperature should return to normal in 10 to 20 minutes. About 80% of children who act sick and feel warm do have a fever.
If you want to be sure, take the temperature. These are the cutoffs for fever using different types of thermometers:
Rectal, ear or forehead temperature: 100.4° F (38.0° C) or higher
Oral mouth temperature: 100° F (37.8° C) or higher
Under the arm Armpit temperature: 99° F (37.2° C) or higher
MYTH. All fevers are bad for children.
FACT. Fevers turn on the body's immune system. They help the body fight infection. Normal fevers between 100° and 104° F (37.8° 40°C) are good for sick children.
MYTH. Fevers above 104° F (40° C) are dangerous. They can cause brain damage.
FACT. Fevers with infections don't cause brain damage. Only temperatures above 108° F (42° C) can cause brain damage. It's very rare for the body temperature to climb this high. It only happens if the air temperature is very high. An example is a child left in a closed car during hot weather.
MYTH. Anyone can have a seizure triggered by fever.
FACT. Only 4% of children can have a seizure with fever.
MYTH. Seizures with fever are harmful.
FACT. These seizures are scary to watch, but they stop within 5 minutes. They don't cause any permanent harm. They don't increase the risk for speech delays, learning problems, or seizures without fever.
MYTH. Without treatment, fevers will keep going higher.
FACT. Wrong, because the brain has a thermostat. Most fevers from infection don't go above 103° or 104° F (39.5°40°C). They rarely go to 105° or 106° F (40.6° or 41.1° C). While these are "high" fevers, they also are harmless ones.
MYTH. If you can't "break the fever", the cause is serious.
FACT. Fevers that don't come down to normal can be caused by viruses or bacteria. The response to fever medicines tells us nothing about the cause of the infection.
MYTH. Once the fever comes down with medicines, it should stay down.
FACT. It's normal for fevers with most viral infections to last for 2 or 3 days (note: or even longer in some cases). When the fever medicine wears off, the fever will come back. It may need to be treated again. The fever will go away and not return once the body overpowers the virus. Most often, this is day 3 or 4. (note: when medicines interfere with the body’s natural healing processes, the body has to work extra hard to overcome the interference so it can get on with the natural healing process.)
MYTH. If the fever is high, the cause is serious.
FACT. If the fever is high, the cause may or may not be serious. If your child looks very sick, the cause is more likely to be serious.
MYTH. The exact number of the temperature is very important.
FACT. How your child looks (and acts) is what's important, not the exact temperature number.
MYTH. Oral temperatures between 98.7° and 100° F (37.1° to 37.8° C) are low-grade fevers.
FACT. These temperatures are normal. The body's normal temperature changes throughout the day. It peaks in the late afternoon and evening. A true low-grade fever is 100° F to 102° F (37.8° 39°C).
SUMMARY. Keep in mind that fever is fighting off (you or) your child's infection. Fever is one of the good guys.
So where do all these aches and pains come from? (Excerpt from a forum response found at http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2001-07/994526623.Im.r.html)
… ” Here is a basic summary of what causes the symptoms encountered during the flu.
Common flu symptoms include fever, sore throat, muscle aches, shivers and cold sweats, etc. These symptoms are not caused by the virus itself but rather by our bodies' response to the virus. (underlined by the author of this article). The immune system mounts a two-fold response to the virus. The humoral response (antibody- mediated) produces antibodies that bind to influenza receptors, preventing further infection of uninfected cells. This is the primary means by which the influenza infection is arrested. The cellular response acts by destroying viral infected cells. This is where the nasty symptoms come from. T cells and macrophages attack mucosal cells that have been altered by the virus and destroy them. The cells produce chemicals known as cytokines and interleukins that either destroy the abnormal cell or recruit other immune cells into the area that is infected.” …
What would a vitalistic naturopathic doctor do???
They would set fear aside and trust the body’s inherent wisdom which is designed to defend, heal, and repair the body. A vitalistic naturopathic doctor would support the body in its efforts and not fight against or suppress those efforts. Here are some things a vitalistic naturopathic doctor would do (or not do):
1. Stop Eating. Whenever a fever is present, fast on water only. NO FOOD or DRINK OTHER THAN PURE WATER.
(all comments entered and italicized in this article, or underlines in any of the text were made by the author):
Prepared 27 September 2021
"...a simple agent such as water, which is cheap and easily available, is often neglected for a complicated system of therapy which is not so effective."
- J.S. Coulter
After using them, young children have lovingly dubbed these socks, “Magic Socks”, as have some adults I know! The traditional name of this home therapy, however, is “Warming Socks”. Now, before you envision your piggly wigglies being snuggled into nice toasty socks which were pre-warmed in your electric clothes dryer, oven or microwave, please allow me to wipe that image from your mind's eye. This is a therapy involving socks that are warm; however, the name can be a bit confusing because the socks are actually applied cold. The warming part of the therapy (hence the name) relies on utilizing a warming process supplied by your very own body.
Warming socks are useful in cases of colds, flu, sore throat, ear infection, headache, migraine, nasal congestion, coughs, sinus infection or in any inflammation/infection of the throat. The socks work best when they are used for three nights in a row - and at the first sign(s) of illness.
Here is the How-To:
* The warming socks duet (wet cotton covered by dry wool) will not result in your bed becoming wet.
Why the "warming socks" are useful:
This is how they work -
The cold causes an initial vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels which slows blood flow). The body senses the cold and its effect so internal signals are triggered which initiate vasodilation (relaxation and widening of blood vessels) to increase blood flow to the feet to warm them. The heat begins to build up from the influx of blood and because the feet are insulated within the socks, but because the cotton socks are still wet, evaporative cooling begins to take place, bringing back the initial cold phase.
Thus the cold/vasoconstriction and warm/vasodilation phases continue to cycle back and forth until the cotton socks are completely dry. This is a beneficial cycle; it is a constant, gentle, self-modulating treatment with tonic effects on the body. This vacillation between the cool and warm temperatures is what leads to increased circulation (blood flow) to the feet and to a decrease of blood in the congested areas (the upper respiratory passages, head, and throat). It is a reflexive action by the body - an involuntary response to a stimulus. This increase in circulation, as well as the decrease in congestion, also allows the body to better deliver fighting members of its immune system army to the sites where they are most needed.
Reference: Wade Boyle, N.D. and Andre Saine, N.D. Lectures in Naturopathic Hydrotherapy. Eclectic Medical Publications. Sandy, Oregon 97055. Copyright 1988, Fourth printing 1995.
Yes, you can make yogurt without a thermometer. How do I know? Because I've been doing it for over 40 years. And I'll tell you here, in a little while, how I've been doing it. It's true that yogurt "recipes" call for heating the milk to 180 degrees F, cooling it down to 110 degrees F, adding the starter culture and then maintaining a steady temperature while it incubates. And it's true that if the milk is too hot when you add the starter culture then you will be killing all those lovely bacteria that you had hoped would start reproducing. But have you ever wondered what the yogurt-making folks of times past did prior to the invention of cooking thermometers or even electricity? If you get to pondering the history of yogurt you may end up not feeling intimidated at all about NOT following a yogurt "recipe" to the T.
On their website, The Dairy Farmers of Canada state the following:
Yogurt is the most popular fermented milk in the world (1).The word yogurt or yoghurt or yoghourt is Turkish in origin. It is a tart, custard-like food made from milk that has first been heated and then inoculated with a bacterial culture; the bacterial action then curdles the milk (2).
There are benefits to fermenting milk. During the fermentation process the milk protein casein is broken down, which allows many people with milk intolerance to freely enjoy milk in the form of yogurt. Additionally, the active bacterial cultures, while turning the milk into yogurt, are producing lactase, the enzyme which allows us to digest the lactose (milk sugar) in milk (3,4). And did you know that during the fermentation process both the vitamin B and the vitamin C content of milk increase (3)? How cool is that? Yogurt is simply good food. The beneficial bacteria in yogurt, as well as the by-products they produce, such as lactic acid (from the breakdown of the milk sugar lactose), aid our bodies in the fullest possible digestion of the foods we eat plus protect us from infection-causing bacteria, including those that cause "traveler's diarrhea" (3). So you can see that our gastrointestinal (GI) system really benefits when we eat yogurt, which is great since our GI system contains nearly 70% of our entire immune system (5)!
So, on to the business of making yogurt. I won't be explaining the why, just the how. The KISS principle.
Types of milk easily obtainable in southern Indiana:
Here are the general directions of how I make my yogurt (yes, without a thermometer):
You can ferment your yogurt anywhere from 4-24 hours. It will usually coagulate within 3-4 hours, resembling the texture of custard. The shorter the fermentation time, the milder the yogurt and the fewer beneficial bacteria it contains. You might be interested to know that commercial yogurt is fermented for relatively short periods of time.
Why do I ferment my yogurt for 24 hours? Well, it gives the bacteria time to consume 100% of the lactose while they are reproducing. And reproduce they do - into incredibly high numbers. Yogurt made this way contains 3 billion cfu/ml so that in just 1 cup (236 ml) you'll get over 708 Billion beneficial bacteria; this is about 50 times as much as the typical 15 Billion in one capsule of a commercial probiotic (6). As you can see, 24 hour yogurt is a low-cost source of probiotic. Plus it is easy to digest, lactose-free, nutritious AND it tastes sooooo good!
Want a great yogurt maker?
If you'd like to make the 24 hour yogurt then you might like a yogurt maker like mine. I have been using a Yogourmet Electric Yogurt Maker for several years now (I purchased mine while I was in Canada for school). I love it and highly recommend it, especially if you are making the 24 hour SCD yogurt. Though the Yogourmet came with a thermometer, old habits die hard and the thermometer had been sitting unused in the drawer until I felt the need to verify temperatures for this article.
MAKING YOGURT WITHOUT AN ELECTRIC YOGURT MAKER OR A THERMOMETER
Since you may want or need to make yogurt without an electric yogurt maker, I'll explain what I have done over the past 40 years and sometimes still do. I've only owned my Yogourmet since about 2008 so when I say these are tried and true methods, I mean it ;>). Read on -
2 more ways to keep your yogurt cozy during the fermentation process:
1) In a gas oven with only the pilot light on; this is pretty straight forward. Just place your prepared milk with the starter culture into containers (wide-mouth quart canning jars work well as containers; don't fill them too full) and then into the oven with only the pilot light on. Just don't forget you are making yogurt and accidentally preheat the oven for a pot roast - oh my!
2) In a Styrofoam cooler (I use the thick-walled ones); I bring water to a boil and fill 1 or more quart canning jars (depending on the time of year), screw on the lids and place the jars inside the cooler along with the glass canning jar(s) of future yogurt. Again, don't fill your milk jars too full; you are fermenting, remember. Then I tuck wool sweaters or old towels around the jars in the cooler and replace the lid. If fermenting for a few hours or overnight, this should be sufficient, but if you are making 24 hour yogurt then you will have to renew the hot water in the jar(s) in the morning. I have my own system pretty much down pat since I heat with an indoor woodstove and the room temperature fluctuates quite a bit throughout the day and night. You will need to experiment with how many jars of hot water work best for your particular situation; with practice you'll get the hang of this method.
There is more of an art to using a Styrofoam cooler (or even a well-insulated cardboard box) versus a gas oven's pilot light. Too much heat will speed up the fermentation process and you may open your cooler to find a jar of separated curds and whey (don't ask me how I know this). No worries - it's still edible. Open the jars very carefully since it is likely that fermentation gases and some pressure has built up if the yogurt is "overdone" (again, personal experience). Pour off the whey and either drink it (rich in minerals), use it in cooking or use it as starter to make your own lactic acid fermented vegetables. Sprinkle a little Celtic Sea Salt on the curds and enjoy. With too little heat your yogurt won't "make"; i.e. it will look like the regular runny milk you started with instead of custard. Give it to the cat or your neighborhood possum and try again with a new batch of milk OR turn it into acid curdled cheese (ricotta) and other goodies. Check out this article (7).
Enjoy your yogurt!
1) Sandor Ellix Katz. "Yogurt, an excerpt from 'The Art of Fermentation'". http://www.splendidtable.org/story/yogurt-an-excerpt-from-the-art-of-fermentation. 5 April 2016.
2) Random House Webster's College Dictionary. Random House, Inc. 1991.
3) Sally Fallon with Mary G. Enig, PhD. Nourishing Traditions. New Trends Publishing- second revised edition, 2001.
4) Dairy Farmers of Canada. "Yogurt". https://www.dairygoodness.ca/yogurt/ n.d. 3 April 2016.
5) G Vighi, F Marcucci, L Sensi, G Di Cara and F Frati. Allergy and the gastrointestinal system. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008, Sept;153 (Suppl 1):3-6.
6) "Yogurt - Why SCD Yogurt is so important".
http://www.breakingtheviciouscycle.info/knowledge_base/detail/yoghurt-why-scd-yogurt-is-so-important/ n.d. 4 April 2016.
7) Pappas, Stephanie Loomis. Bon Appetit. Cooking. "Your 'Expired Milk' Still Has So Much More to Give: Make the most of your funky friend". https://www.bonappetit.com/story/sour-milk-tips. 17 September 2020. Accessed 17 July 2023.